Figure Above: Mt Louisa as shown on Townsville (Special) topographical map as issued to the Australian Military Forces in 1942. Note, there is no quarries marked on the side of Mt Louisa in the area of this review
Figure Below: Legend – Townsville (Special) 1942
The interesting part about this map is it shows the quarries are marked some distance from the base of the mountain. If the marking are correct, it would show the extensive earth works taken place on the seaward side of the mountain are a long way from where the alleged tunnel portals are claimed to be. If this was the case, Then how does one explain why earthworks went on up on the mountain that have a man made uniform shape and size? Also to make mention of the official Main roads book released after the war shows some incredible amounts of fill were required for the Garbutt Aerodrome at Townsville, which is now the Townsville airport and RAAF Garbutt.
The aerodrome was originally constructed as a lightly gravelled runway with a pavement 100 feet wide to carry service aircraft. On the establishment of a RAAF Station there, the width of the runways were increased to 150 feet. In November 1941, the Commonwealth Works Department asked for three runways to be extended to 5000 feet. The work was to be done by the Main Roads Commission instead of the Townsville City Council. The increased length was needed for Lockheed Hudson Bombers and Flying Fortresses, which required reaching a high rate of speed before leaving the ground. Six weeks were allowed for the completion of this portion of the task that was to lead to the development of one of our largest airfields. Gravel for these jobs was obtained from the Townsville City Council and the Bohle River Quarries.
At one stage, gravel was delivered to Garbutt. At a rate of 4000 cubic yards (approx. 7200 tons) per day. Bearing in mind that this went on for 6 weeks, at this aerodrome, one has to ask the question, “Where did all the gravel and fill come from?”. It has been claimed that it came from Jimmy’s Lookout. If this was to be the case, in photographs taken prior to the war and then after the war, it would have shown significant change to the Lookout, in fact there would be a massive hole. Jimmy’s Lookout still stands today, unaffected. It should also be noted that Jimmy’s Lookout does have semi-underground/ underground buildings and bunkers in it that date from the Second World War.
Bearing in mind that if Garbutt was taking fill at a rate of 4000 cubic yards (approx. 7200 tons) a day, then other strips, similar to Garbutt which were constructed at Anthill Plains, Stockroute, Woodstock, Upper Ross River, Fanning, Bohle River, Reed River, Aitkenvale and Mount St John, would have required similar amounts of fill. Where did the fill come from? On an average, that was 36 000 cubic yards of fill (approx. 64,800 tons) required per day for approximately 6 weeks to construct one strip 150 feet wide by 5000 feet long.
Due to the configuration of the ground at Charters Towers, the construction of two 6000 feet long landing strips involved unusually large cuts and fills up to 10 feet, and earthwork quantities approaching 250 000 cubic yards (approx. 450,000 tons) for each strip. This amazing feat was completed in 14 days, as the military authorities believed that the Garbutt Airfield was too vulnerable to enemy action. It is also noted in the Archival Book, ‘The History of the Main Roads Commission During WW2’, on page 22, that disused or old gold mines were used for storing explosives, ammunition and petrol and some of the buildings were well obscured from view amongst the old mine dumps .Also with the following pressed into action right throughout the commonwealth.
Also in the above mentioned book, on page 42, it speaks of the Fifth American Air Force requiring a suitable centrifugal pump which was not available; but a reconnaissance of old mines in the area located a force pump of the plunger type, which was adapted for the purpose. Flanged galvanised steel piping, which had once served for de-watering deep water trenches in the construction of underground works at Townsville anchored to a precipitous river bank, served as a delivery pipe; and did so for several months until a more modernised one could be found.
So far, I have raised two very interesting issues. Number 1 being, “Where did all the spoil/fill come from?” and the Second Issue being, “What was the dewatering pump for deep water trenches, for underground works, being used for whilst it was in Townsville”. It is mentioned in many Archival sources, that the Townsville City Council played a very active role in conjunction with both the Dept of Defence and the Main Roads Commission. Some of the documentation you will read further on, did in fact come from sources within the Townsville City Council itself, which raises another issue; “If the Townsville City Council played such an active role, it’s inconceivable that from one council election to the next, from War time to Current day, that the mention of Bunkers or Underground installations would not have passed through, either orally or via some form of written record.”
In war zones and in heavily fortified neutral countries such as Switzerland and Sweden, bunkers and associated fortifications have proven themselves to be an effective defence system in the event of hostile attack. It also makes sense that if tunnelling operations were commenced in a pre-war quarry, it would not be visible to either the casual or hostile observer. The enemy would not bomb what appears to be a quarry, and you have the large amounts of fill required on a daily basis to build your airfields. With such a large build up of Australian and US military infrastructure, personnel and material in Townsville, it makes sense to make use of the strategic value of the natural topography that surrounds the creeks, rivers and coastlines. During WW2, Townsville was known as “The Garrison City”. In every single Theatre of Operations in the Second World War, regardless of whether allied or enemy, bunkers and tunnels were constructed, including several complexes
that dwarf these Australian sites
The photo below, shows a colour photo taken of the USAAF BASE around the same time as the black and white photo above. Both are official photos from the U.S.A Air Force 8th photographic section. To give an idea of the sheer size of the portal marked e and f. The colour photo, it can clearly been seen how many vehicles are parked in the motor pool. By looking at the larger trucks, you can see in the black and white photo, that the trucks are dwarfed by the size of the portal. Both portals marked E and F could very easily accommodate the largest of the trucks through the entry points.
Figure Below: Enlarged view of Mt Louisa portal behind motor pool
In the above photo is an exploded view of one of the many portals around Mt Louisa. .It has been magnified to such a point that the scratches you see are not visible to the naked eyes. The red arrow marks the portal entry point. The pink arrow is showing the Studebaker and Blitz trucks out in front of portal. The approximate size of truck would be width 1.5 to 2 metres, length would be 5 meters and around 3 to 4 metres high taking into account the height of the canopy. And as the photo is an oblique, which makes the background of the photo appear to be smaller than it already is, it is possible that this portal could be around 70 to 80 feet wide and around the same height.
Photo above. 1940’s photograph showing a tunnel portal under construction. This is how the portal starts out before it extends past the base rock.
Photo’s above & below. Present day Cheyenne Mountain bunker complex in the USA. Note that the entry portal extends out like the one visible in the wartime photograph of Mt. Louisa. Also note how the portal is built into a re-entrant. This allows for easy camouflage of the portal and associated above- ground infrastructure.
In the above photographs (figures number 9 and 10) the entrance to the bunker extends out past the rock face. As the design of such an entry portal needs to support itself, there are only about 3 different designs of entry portal that can be safely used. This situation has not changed since the Mt Louisa facilities were brought into service over sixty years ago. The engineering principles have been known since at least the 19th century and remain the same to the present day.
Photo Below: both portals in full view. The chinagraph pencil circles and arrows on the original photograph which show the entry portals are visible.
In the above photo you can see clearly two round type of entry portals. This design is still used today by military forces worldwide. Photo below while this photo is a little blurred, the lines point to the entry points which can be seen clearly in figure,
The blue arrows in the photo below show a man-made entry that is consistent with the headboard or the top of a portal entry. As this is an oblique photo and the man made feature is at the top of the ridgeline while it may look like a bridge in design, there is no logical reason for a bridge to be at the top of a ridge line and would not be made with what appears on the photograph to be solid concrete. Therefore it is either the top of the entry point below or is the start of any entry point being constructed. This portal would be large enough for any in-service vehicles, including earthmoving equipment, to enter with ease. In addition, there is an extensive road network going around to what would be the front entry.
Photo above: This is one of the photos shown to Garth Powell when he personally met with Mr Daniel Hultgren, and the quote by Garth back to our sponsor was that they could see quite distinct entry points in the photos supplied. This is one of the same photographs submitted to Coffey Geosciences that were examined for the 2002 Coffey report for DOD.
The photographs above is extracted from the eight (8) U.S Air Force aerial imagery of the US camp at the foot of Mt Louisa. It was this photo in front of eyewitnesses that Garth Powell said he could see the bunker entries and consequently sent the letter below to one of our backers at the time.
In the above red & blue highlighted areas it clearly states that they could see in the photo a TARGET WORTHY OF FURTHER INTEREST.